Glossary of Kabbalah and Chassidut: Letter “T”

And Other Hebrew Words from Our Site

Introduction
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 T

Ta’anug (“Pleasure”):
Ta’anug is the spiritual state associated in particular with the second head of the keter.
For further explanation see: The Powers of the Soul–Ta’anug.
Ta’avah (“desire”):
ta’avah is a lust, desire, or passion.
Tabernacle (Hebrew: miskan, “dwelling”):
The tabernacle was the temporary, mobile Sanctuary (portable version of the Temple) constructed by the Jewish People during their journey in the desert from Egypt to the land of Israel, and which continued to serve in the land of Israel until the Holy Temple was constructed in Jerusalem.
 
Taharah (ritual “purity”):
Taharah is the spiritual state in which one purified himself from a specific degree of tumah (or from tumah altogether), and is thus allowed to enter areas or touch, be touched by, or consume things or food he otherwise may not. In general, the process of attaining taharah involves some type of reaffirmation of life, such as immersion in a mikveh. The spiritual correlate to taharah is optimistic elation or joy in the service of G-d. See tumah.
 
Talmud (“learning”):
The Talmud is the recension of the greater part of the oral Torah, comprising mostly legal but also much homiletic and even some explicitly mystical material.

The Talmud comprises the Mishnah (mishnah, “repetition”) and the Gemarah (gemorah, “completion”). The Mishnah is the basic compendium of the laws (each known as a mishnah) comprising the oral Torah, redacted by Rabbi Yehudah the Prince in the second century CE. TheMishnah was elaborated upon over the next few centuries in the academies of the Holy Land and Babylonia; this material is the Gemara.

There are thus two Talmuds: the one composed in the Holy Land, known as the Talmud Yerushalmi (“The Jerusalem Talmud”), completed in the third century, and the more prevalent edition of the Talmud, which is considerably more extensive and accessible to analysis, known as theTalmud Bavli (“The Babylonian Talmud”), completed in the sixth century.

Tamuz:
Tamuz is the fourth of the twelve months of the Jewish calendar.
For further explanation see “Living With the Times”–The Month of Tamuz. Also see the Hebrew Months.
 
Tanach (“Bible”):
Bible: the written Torah. The Bible comprises twenty-four books, divided into three sections: (1) the Torah (“teaching”), comprising the five books of Moses; (2) the eight books of the Prophets (Nevi’im, the first and second books of Samuel and Kings are considered one book, as are the twelve “minor” prophets); (3) the eleven books of the Writings (Ketuvim, the books of Ezra and Nehemiah are considered one book, as are the two books of Chronicles). The Bible is therefore known in Hebrew as the Tanach, the abbreviation formed by the first letters of the names of these three sections.All the books of the Bible are authored by G-d, though transmitted through prophecy via the souls of the various prophets, who are known as the “authors” of the books themselves. Thus, every aspect of these texts contains infinite levels of meaning. If properly studied, they yield the profoundest insights available in any field of knowledge.
Although the division of the Bible into chapters and verses is of medieval, non-Jewish origin, its use has become standard in all Jewish books. The traditional division is into non-numbered paragraphs (parshiot, sing. parashah) and verses. In addition, the Torah is divided into 54 sections (also parshiot), at least one of which is read each week in the synagogue.
 
Tanna (“teacher”; pl. Tanaim):
Tanna is a sage of the Mishnaic period (20 – 200 CE)
Tanya (“It has been taught”):
Tanya is the first word and title of the fundamental work and most basic text of Chassidut, written by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi. (a daily lesson in Tanya is available on-line by Chabad-Lubavitch).
Targum (“translation”):
The Bible’s traditional translation into Aramaic.
Tav:
Tav is the 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
For further explanation see Alef-Beit Significances.
Also see: The Mystical Significance of the Hebrew Letters (including an image and audio pronunciation of each letter).
 
Tefilin (“phylacteries”):
Tefilin are leather boxes containing specially written parchments, worn on the head and right arm by adult men during weekday morning prayer.
Temimut (“sincerity”):
1. Temimut is earnestness and sincereity, either in one’s conduct with his fellow men or in his connection to G-d.
 
2. Temimut is the spiritual state associated with the inner experience of the  sefirah of hod.
For further explanation see: The Powers of the Soul–Temimut.
 
Temple (or “Holy Temple”; Hebrew: Beit HaMikdash, “House of the Sanctuary”):
The Temple is the central sanctuary in Jerusalem which serves as the physical abode of the indwelling of G-d’s Presence on earth and as the venue for the sacrificial service. The Temple is the focal point of one’s spiritual consciousness. The first Temple was built by King Solomon (833 BCE) and destroyed by the Babylonians (423 BCE); the second Temple was built by Nehemiah (371-353 BCE), remodeled by Herod and destroyed by the Romans (70 CE); the third, eternal Temple will be built by Mashiach.
Terumah (“Offering”):
Terumah is the portion of one’s crop which is given to the Priest (Kohen) as a gift.
Teshuvah (“returning”):
Teshuvah, is the return of the individual (or community), after a period of estrangement, to a state of oneness with and commitment to God and His Torah.
There are in general two levels of teshuvah:
 
1. “lower teshuvah” entails the rectification of one’s deeds in accordance with the Divine will.
 
2. “higher teshuvah” is the great love and passion to become subsumed within Divine Essence, a passion more intense than that of the tzadik.
Tevet (or Teves):
Tevet is the tenth of the twelve months of the Jewish calendar.
For further explanation see “Living With the Times”–The Month of Tevet. Also see the Hebrew Months.
 
Tevunah (“Comprehension”):
Tevunah is the lower of the two primary partzufim which develop from the sefirah of binah (which together are referred to as the generalpartzuf of Imma).
For further explanation see: Olam HaAtzilutTevunah.
 
Tet:
Tet is the 9th letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
For further explanation see Alef-Beit Significances.
Also see: The Mystical Significance of the Hebrew Letters (including an image and audio pronunciation of each letter).
 
Tiferet (“Beauty”):
Tiferet is the sixth of the ten sefirot, and the third of the emotive attributes in creation. 
For further explanation see: The Divine Emanations–Tiferet.
Tikun (“rectification”):
1. A tikun is a state of perfection and order.
 
2. “The world of Tikun,”(olam hatikkun, “the world of rectified order”) is the world that first manifests this state , which is synonymous with the world of Atzilut.
 
3. Tikun is the spiritual process of liberating and retrieving the fragments of Divine light trapped within the material realm, unconscious of G-d’s presence, thereby restoring the world to its initially intended state of perfection. This is accomplished through the performance of mitzvot. (SeeBirurTohu.).
 
4. Tikun is a remedy prescribed against the effects of committing a sin.
 
Tikkunim:
plural of tikun.
 
Tishah b’Av (“the 9th of the Hebrew month of  Av“):
Tishah b’Av is the fast day commemorating the catastrophic day in Jewish history when:
1) the First Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians;
2) the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans;
3) the Jews of Spain were given and ultimatum by the Inquisition–leave, convert or die;
4) World War I, the prelude of the Holocaust, began;
and when may other calamities were visited upon the Jewish people.
 
Tishrei:
Tishrei is the seventh of the twelve months of the Jewish calendar.
For further explanation see “Living With the Times”–The Month of Tishrei. Also see the Hebrew Months.
Tohu (“Chaos”):
1. Tohu is the primordial unrectified state of Creation.
 
2. “The world of Tohu” is the world which manifests this state, synonymous with the initial, premature form of the world of Atzilut. It itself develops in two stages: a stable form (Akudim) followed by an unstable form (Nekudim). The world of Tohu is characterized by “great lights” entering premature “vessels,” resulting in the “breaking of the vessels” (shevirat hakelim). See Tikun.
 
Torah (“Teaching”):
1. The Torah is the five books of Moses.
 
2. The entirety of Divine teaching and wisdom bestowed upon, and cultivated by, the Jewish People. “The Written Torah” is synonymous with the 24 holy writings that make up the Tanach, whereas “the Oral Torah” consists of those teachings which were originally conveyed orally but eventually had to be written in the form of the MishnahTalmud, and Midrash.
 
3. G-d’s will and wisdom as communicated to man. It pre-existed creation, and G-d used the Torah as His blueprint in creating the world.

G-d certainly communicated the teachings of the Torah in some form to Adam, who then transmitted them orally from generation to generation. However, G-d “officially” gave the Torah to mankind c. 1313 BCE (and during the ensuing 40 years) at Mt. Sinai through Moses. The Ten Commandments were pronounced in the presence of the entire Jewish People.
G-d gave the Torah in two parts: the written Torah and the oral Torah. The written Torah originally consisted of the Five Books of Moses (the “Pentateuch”), the other books being added later (see Bible). The oral Torah was communicated together with the Five Books of Moses as an explanation of the laws and lore included in it. This material was later written down by the sages of the oral Torah in the form of the Talmud, theMidrash, and the Zohar.

Torah-portion:
A Torah portion is one of the fifty-four sub-sections into which the five books of Moses are divided for the purpose of the weekly reading in the synagogue. There are also special Torah-portions for the holidays.
Tumah (ritual “impurity”):
Tumah is a spiritual state contracted by someone or something under various circumstances and to various degrees, in which he is prohibited from entering various holy areas or touching, being touched by, or consuming various holy objects or foods. In general, the sources of tumah are in some way associated with death (or a missed chance for potential life) and the purification process involves some type of reaffirmation of life. The spiritual correlate to tumah is depression or despair. See taharah.
Triangle:
A triangle is the sum of all integers from 1 to a specified number. For exzmple, the triangle of five is: 5 = 1 plus 2 plus 3 plus 4 plus 5 = 15.
Trope (“Cantillation marks”):
The trope is the special diacritical marks found in Masoretic editions of the Written Torah which indicate both how the words are to be sung during communal reading and how the sentences are to be punctuated.
 
Truth (emet):
“Truth” is the spiritual state associated with the sefirah of yesod.
For further explanation see: The Powers of the Soul–Emet.
Tu b’Shevat (“The Fifteenth Day of Shevat“):
Tu b’Shevat the fifteenth day of Shevat is the new year in regard to determining how fruit is to be tithed; the day upon which sap rises high into the tree and begins providing the fruit bearing branches with nutrients from the ground.
Tzadik (Hebrew letter ):
Tzadik is the 18th letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
For further explanation see Alef-Beit Significances.
Also see: The Mystical Significance of the Hebrew Letters (including an image and audio pronunciation of each letter).
 
Tzadik (“Righteous” person; pl. Tzadikim):
tzadik is someone who has succeeded in fully overcoming the evil inclination of his animal soul (and has converted its potential into good) and who dedicates himself to spiritually elevating his people.
There are in general three levels of the tzadik:
 
1. A “complete tzadik” (tzadik gamur) who not only vanquishes in full his innate evil inclination, but even transforms it into good (for which reason he is referred to as tzadik v’tov lo,” a tzadik who possesses only good).
 
2. An “incomplete tzadik” (tzadik she’eino gamur) who has not yet completed the task of vanquishing his evil inclination, though he has mineralized it in essence (for which reason he is called a tzadik v’ra lo,” a tzadik who [still] possesses [a bit of] evil).
 
3. A “relative tzadik” (tzadik b’shem hamushal, or tzadik b’din) whose merits exceed his liabilities (see Tanya, chapt. 1).
 
Tzadik in peltz (a righteous man in furs” [Yiddush]):
Tzadik in peltz is a depreciative term for someone who tends to his own spiritual well being while remaining oblivious to the spiritual needs of others.
 
Tzadik Nistar (“concealed tzadik“; pl. tzadikim nistarim):
tzadik nistar is a hidden tzadik, whose righteousness remains unknown to his community. In every generation there are 36 tzadikim nistarimin addition to 36 revealed tzadikim. (see Leviatan and Behemot) Together they combine to form the 72 “bridges” (corresponding to the 72 Names of G-d) described in the Zohar as linking together the concealed and revealed worlds. It requires tremendous self sacrifice for a tzadiknistar to reveal himself to the world. This was first accomplished in full by the Ba’al Shem Tov.
 
Tzadikim:
plural of Tzadik.
 
Tzeniut (“modesty”):
Tzeniut is the norms of modest behavior, attitude, and dress prescribed by the Torah.
 
Tzevakot:
A Holy Name of G-d.
For further explanation see: Eleven Holy Names of G-d.
Tzimtzum (“Contraction”):
Tzimtzum is the concept of contraction and “removal” of God’s infinite light in order to allow for creation of independent realities. The primordialtzimtzum produced the “vacated space” (chalal) devoid of direct awareness of God’s presence.
For further explanation see: Sod Ha’Tzimtzum.

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